Courtship duet among the grebes:
and among sandhill cranes:
Social grooming among primates (HT: Warg Franklin)
Ritualized aggression (HT: Warg Franklin)
Submission behaviors, e.g. chimp "greetings."
- Penguin parents and children greeting each other after a long absence.
What is ritual in non-human animals?
- Symbolic. A behavior that "stands in for" something else.
- Formal. Takes the same form every time?
- Changes social reality in the minds of participants.
- Non-transactional? Rules out bower-building among bowerbirds?